How Does A Heat Pump Work The Science Working Behind It

How Does A Heat Pump Work? | The Science Working Behind It


Today Technology is progressing very rapidly. Because to fulfill the demand of people everyday life technology is also progressing according to it. Anyone cannot refuse the importance of technological life. So, there is another amazing device which is being popular nowadays. This device named a heat pump. Many people know about it. Because it has amazing uses and benefits. But still many people ask these questions. what is a heat pump? How does a heat pump work? Rather it is airconditioner or a heater. I have explained all this question after a lot of research.


A heat pump is a mechanical device that transfers heat energy. It uses the outside air to heat or cool the home. Actually, a heat pump has both the functionalities. Because It uses the outside air to keep warm the house in winter and also keep cool the house in summer. So, its an amazing device which is being popular nowadays.


Actually, a heat pump is a mechanical device. It contains two function heating and cooling function. In other words, we can say that a device having two in on functions. Also, it’s becoming the need for the everyday house because of its popularity. This type of device is very useful, especially in large houses. Simply a heat pump has two basic or major components. One component is called an indoor unit and the other is called the outdoor unit.


In summer heat pump work as a cooling system and in winter it works as a heating system. Because it has both the function cooling and heating. It depends upon you that which mode you have select either cooling or heating. Actually, in summer it absorbs the internal heat of your house and release this heat from its outdoor unit and cool the house. But in winter it absorbs the heat from the outside air and release through its indoor unit and keep warm your house. For More Details.

Heat Pump Types

There are different types of heat pumps. Each type has its own functions and specialty. Some of the basic Heat Pumps are given here.

  • Mechanical heat pump
  • Gas engine heat pump
  • Hybrid heat pump
  • Adsorption heat pump
  • Absorption heat pump
  • Thermoacoustic heat pump

How Does A Heat Pump Work?

Now, this is the main question that how does a heat pump work? Actually the working phenomena of a heat pump or in other words we can say that science behind a heat pump is very simple. The operating principle of a heat pump is based on expansion and compression of a fluid which is known as ‘refrigerant’.

Actually, there are four basic components of a heat pump. These basic components are known as compressors, evaporators, expansion, and condensers. The working fluid which is known as ‘refrigerant’ passes through these components. Heat is extracted from a waste heat source in an evaporator. While heat is delivered to the consumer at a higher temperature level in the condenser. To drive the compressor electric energy is required. Also, this energy is added to the heat that is available in the condenser.


So in this way a heat pump works and constantly doing its job depending upon the season. One main thing about a heat pump is that it works on electricity, not on fuel. So in this way, it saves your fuel consumption cost. Also, a heat pump moves heat from one place to another rather than generating heat. In this way, it provides more energy efficiency which is a benefit for us.

How Does A Heat Pump Work? | The Science Working Behind It

Working Modes

There are two working modes of a heat pump. Also, both working modes have their own functionalities and advantages. These working modes are explain below.

1) Cooling Mode

In this mode heat pump circulates the refrigerant between outdoor condenser and indoor evaporator. The indoor evaporator absorbs the internal heat of the house and release from outdoor condenser. In this way, it keeps cool the house by repeating this process constantly.

2) Heating Mode

In this mode heat pump reverses the refrigeration cycle. It this mode outdoor coil works as an evaporator and indoor coil works as condenser. The outdoor unit absorbs the outside heat from the air and releases it in the house through the indoor unit. In this way, it keeps warm the house. This process constantly works.


Basic Components

A heat pump consists of many different components. Each component has its own function. But there are two major components of a heat pump. One component is known as the indoor unit and the other is known as an outdoor unit. Other small components are inside these two major components.

Indoor Unit

The indoor unit consists of a coil and a fan. The coil performs both tasks. Because in cooling mode it works as an evaporator and in the meanwhile it works as a condenser in heating mode. The fan is use for moving air across the coil and throughout the duct in a house or In an office.

Outdoor Unit

Similarly Indoor unit the Outdoor unit also contains a coil and a fan. The coil work in both mode cooling and heating mode. The fan blows outside air across the coil for heat exchange.


Ducts are used to move air from one place to another. Actually, ducts are the tunnels which are spread in various places of the house and air move from these ducts to cool or heat a house.



A refrigerant is a substance or a mixture which is used in a heat pump and refrigeration cycle for absorbing and rejecting heat. Actually, it is a liquid. Also in most cycles, it converts liquid to a gas and a gas to a liquid. Different types of fluid are used for this process.


A compressor is use to increase the pressure of a gas by reducing the volume of gas. Actually, the compressor is very similar to the pumps. Because both can increase the pressure on liquids and move the fluid through pipes. While the gases are compressible so compressor compresses the gases and increases the pressure. But in liquid case, it is difficult to compress the liquid so pump only increases the liquid pressure and move to flow through pipes.

Reversing Valve

Reversing valve is the basic component of a heat pump. Because it reverses the flow of refrigerant. In this way, the refrigeration cycle of a heat pump changes from heating to cooling and cooling to heating. So this is very helpful in a heat pump or any other single equipment which has the ability to work in both modes.

Thermal Expansion Valve

The thermal expansion valve is use in heat pumps or in air conditioning systems. Actually, the thermal expansion valve controls the amount of refrigerant released into the evaporator. Actually, the expansion valve is use to removes pressure from the liquid refrigerant to allow expansion or change of state from a liquid to a vapor in the evaporator.


Why Many People’s Are Still Not Using Heat Pumps?

Here the main question is if Heat Pump has wonderful functions and its very popular than still many people have not this in their homes why?

Actually, there is a reason behind this. In the above, I have explained that heat pumps are ideal with moderate climates. But in long winter areas or in very cold areas they are not so efficient. As we know that a heat pump works on a specific temperature. Otherwise, it has to do a lot of effort to warm your house.

But there is a solution behind everything. In very cold winter areas we can use a furnace with the heating pump. The furnace will produce heat and the heating pump will blow the warm air into the house. People should use a heat pump because it is very efficient and saving fuel costs.

Note: Heat pumps are best for moderate climates. Also for lower temperatures, a supplemental heating source may be needed.



Heat Pumps are the best solution for both big or small houses in winter or in summer. Because the device has both functions of heating and cooling. Also, it is the best solution to save fuel consumption costs. Because it works on electricity, not on fuel. Also, it provides a sufficient amount of energy. In the Last, I have summarized the overall content for your assistance.

  • Types Of Heat Pump
  • How Does A Heat Pump Work?
  • Working Modes Of A Heat Pump
  • Components Of A Heat Pump
  • Why Many People’s Are Still Not Using Heat Pumps?

What would you feel after using a heat pump? Tell me or give me any suggestions about your experience by commenting or E-mail.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *